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Which are the best Problem and Solution Essay Topics and Ideas

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A problem solution essay states a problem and provides a detailed description on how the problem can be solved. The writer should convince the reader that a particular problem exists and it can be solved using a specific approach. Thus, the essay should establish the following;

Discuss the problem – convince the reader that the problem bother to the community or part of it.

Propose a solution – discuss the solution in a detailed manner, and show why you feel it’s the best solution

Refute any objections – show why they are wrong

Problem solution essays are writing challenges that you will face all your life and it is important to improve your skills with every writing task that you undertake.

Problem solution essay ideas

There are many problems that you can solve in your problem solutions essays, but you can visit this page for a comprehensive list of problem solution essay topics. However, you can also generate your own problem solution essay titles based on different topics. The best topics that you can write on are those that you understand very clearly.

One of the best points to start looking for probable problem solution essay topics is your social life. Think about your home, family, friends, school, transport, sports, environment, hobbies, et cetera.

Looking at every component of your social life, you will notice that there are so many challenges that are worth solving. For instance, when you consider your friends you may think about the environmental challenges that affect their academic performance, you may also consider things that affect their behaviors and general moral decay that is evident in the society.

Using this simple criterion, generate as many topics in every category as possible. With a long list of possible essay topics, the next step should be deciding which problem you can best solve.

A good essay should be both educative and focused to a specific topic. It is important to first draft your solutions before you can start writing your essay. Research online for ideas and problems related to yours and how people have managed to solve them. The solution should be convincing and interesting to read.

Problem solution essay outline

For you to communicate effectively through your essay, it is paramount to use a structure that can be followed easily. This will not only make your writing work easier, but it will allow your audience to follow with ease the follow for your essay. That way, you can be sure that your essay is clearly explained after the final full stop.

A good essay should have three parts; introduction, body and the conclusion. In the introduction, you should define the problem because your readers may not be aware of the problem. Explain it in details in order to convince your audience that it is indeed a problem that deserves an elaborate solution. In the introduction you can use your prior experiences to make more interesting. Make sure to include a thesis statement that will be addressed by the essay.

The body should carry all the solutions and how they will solve the problem. The body should also show that your solution is not only effective but it is also cost effective. The solution should not be skewed because it should be adaptable by all without discriminating against some parts of the society.

The conclusion should restate the thesis. It should revisit the problem defined in the introduction and seek to emphasize that the solution suggested in the body part is the best. You should make good use of facts and figures in convincing your audience.

List of the best problem and solution essay topics

  • Singing in the shower helps in boosting your confidence
  • Students can use recorders to solve the problem of note taking during classes
  • Autocorrect boosts the typing speed on portable devices
  • Alarm clocks that run away from their owners solve the problem of oversleeping
  • 3D printing will one day solve most domestic problems

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Interracial marriage and family

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Family is a unit composed of people who are related either by blood or marriage. A typical nuclear family comprises of a father, a mother and their children. According to many cultures, the unit is headed by the father. Many variations to the family definition exist, some of which are more inclusive. One such variation that is widely accepted delimits the relationship to blood and marriage and is accommodative to families with adoption cases. Majority of families are composed of people of the same race because they are able to connect easily in terms of cultural practices and beliefs. Almost always religion is another key factor that makes people to prefer to marry within their race, especially where a given race has a predominant religion different from another race. However, there are a significant number of families where the father has a different cultural background from the mother. Cases of culturally heterogeneous families are on the rise. For instance among the Welsh speakers, cases of culturally heterogeneous families increased by 10.4% between 1960 and 2002 (Charles 111).

There are a number of reasons behind the rise in culturally heterogeneous families. Increase in tolerance among the people has been cited as one of the mail reasons for interracial families in the United States. Assimilation of minority groups of people into a larger society also bring rise to families with mixed cultural background. In fact, intermarriage of people with different cultural background has been taken as a sign of acceptance of one community to another. In the United States, it has been argued that the times of civil war movement made racism unacceptable in the community. There are theories pointing the desire for exchange of socioeconomic status as a contributing factor to the rise of mixed race marriages. This is where members of a lower – status community desire to marry or get married to members of a higher – status community in order to elevate their status.

Interracial marriages can take different forms. They range from Whites and Asians to Whites and Blacks to Asians and Blacks. Although the acceptance rate for interracial marriages is increasing, there are forms of interracial marriages that are quite uncommon. The Black and White marriages have maintained an upward trend in the United States majority of which have White female and Black male (Grapes 76). There are, however, Black female – White male marriages some of which are for famous personalities for instance Bill de Blasio who is a prominent New York politician married to a Black lady, Chirlane McCray. On the other hand, the Asian – Black interracial marriages are less common and where they exist, majority have Black male Asian female. The reason behind the rarity of Black – White relationships and marriages is hinged on the society’s approval. According to Yancey, “Black-white relationships remain the most difficult from the stand point of social approval, expectations and level of understanding and social skills that relatives, friends and coworkers, typically have when interacting with interracial marriages and families. Social class and the mass media portrayals are important mediating factor here. In the past they have been strong deterrents (often backed by law). In contemporary society increasingly sympathetic understandings of such relationships makes them less unusual and more normative. Interracial families also must tease through such heady issues as how housework is divided, budgeting, discipline, and deciding vacation destinations” (Yancey 57). The 2000 census in the United States provides figures that in line with this thought. While interracial marriages accounted for only 1.9 percent of total marriages in the United States, the Black – White marriages stood at 0.006 percent, which is 200 times less that the White – Asian marriages which were at 1.2 percent. Blacks and Whites tendencies towards interracial marriage suffer prevailing taboos within respective communities resulting to great social and spatial distance between them.

Unlike Black – Asian and Black – White marriages where there is a disparity between the rates of one gender getting into interracial marriage compared to the other gender, in Asian – White marriages, there is an equal tendency of both males and females getting into an interracial relationship. This is partly attributed to the fact that both the Whites and the Asians are dynamic and are not as culturally inclined as the Black counterparts. This makes the couples arrive at a middle ground easily compared to people who have deep roots in their culture.

Interracial relationships and marriages are not without benefits. There is one theory that the couples in such marriages mutually benefit in the union where one party reaps a desirable status while the other party gains economically. The theory was propounded by Davis and Merton and has been subjected to various interpretations. Davis and Merton’s Status – Caste Exchange (SCE) theory proposed that the only reason black-white marriages took place was that the black spouse must have especially high status, much higher than the white partner, and that the high status of the black spouse would compensate the white partner for throwing his or her lot in with black society. Davis and Merton did not base their Status – Caste Exchange theories on marriage data from the United States, as such data were not available in the early 1940s (Rosenfeld). The theory has been widely quoted in the spheres of interracial marriage although some scholars are of the opinion that it does not hold water.

Interracial relationships and marriages have a number of challenges. When two people with different cultural background pair up in a family set up, they normally look for a common ground where both parties will be comfortable. This sometimes proves to be difficult. In his book, Charles has given an interview account of interracial marriage where he captured the challenge of transmission of culture in a family with a Welsh speaking man and a non – Welsh speaking wife. “One man who was not a Welsh speaker but whose wife was Welsh speaking said they both wanted their children to speak Welsh; both children were attending a Welsh playgroup but English remained the language of the household. In a different example, an Asian who was married to a Welsh man discussed her husband’s concern that their young daughter be aware of the Welsh side of her identity: He can’t speak Welsh so he feels sometimes that he can’t give her enough of the culture. So he does do extras, you know? Like he’ll make sure she has Celtic jewellery, or he’ll just, whatever few words he knows of Welsh, try to speak to her in those” (Charles 111)

Another common challenge encountered by interracial couples is lack of acceptance by the spouse’s community. Individuals in interracial marriages are sometimes confronted with a lack of acceptance by members of society, resulting in some degree of marginalization. It appears that social acceptance is more likely to occur in primary group situations in comparison to secondary group situations (Charles 143). The couples may be at home with each other but they cannot blend with the society as a couple more so because the community looks at the spouse from a different race with an eye of suspicion. This prevents the interracial family from engaging meaningfully with the surrounding community.

Stability of interracial marriages

Although gender plays a great role in interracial dynamics, there are general inferences that can be drawn from various researches done to investigate the stability of interracial relationships and marriage. According to Kreider, racial paring is a key factor that determines the stability of marriage. In addition to the cultural stress that is posed by interracial relationships and marriage, some spouses risk losing connections with their kinsmen. “Research on estimated interracial union dissolution hazard by racial pairing illuminated substantially different risks of divorce. Controlling for all variables, Black men married to White women and Latino men married to Black women share significantly high risks of divorce. Latino men married to Latino women have significantly low risks of divorce. The results suggested that Blacks and Latinos overall may enhance their risks of divorce by pairing with members outside of their race. Perhaps net of individual-level factors that affect racial differences in divorce, social-structural factors may elevate Black and Latino risks of divorce. In addition to race-related individual stressors associated with being a minority (institutional racism and discrimination in both education and employment), Blacks and Latinos who engage in interracial unions may also receive family stress over the relationship. As a consequence, minorities who marry interracially can often be removed from their kinship networks” (Kreider 253). Expanding this school of thought, there many are single – parent situations that can be attributed to divorce resulting to instability nature of interracial marriages. If divorce happens early in marriage when the children are very young, the parent who ends up with the children transmits their culture to the children.

Although interracial marriages have a higher likelihood of getting disrupted compared to same race marriage, there are many other factors, other than the fact that the marriage is interracial, which are more important in determining the stability of a marriage relationship. These factors include educational level of the spouses and the age at marriage. These factors are also divorce influencers in endogamous marriages. Therefore interracial relationships and marriages cannot entirely be blamed for the increasing rate of divorce in many societies.

There are studies that have been made on Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) and how interracial dynamics play a role in the violence. One such study by Chartier showed that indeed the rate of domestic violence in interracial families is higher compared to same – race families. He says that, “the prevalence rate for any occurrence of Intimate Partner Violence was highest for interethnic couples, followed by black and Hispanic couples and then white couples. Interethnic couples reported the highest prevalence rates relative to other couples for 5 out of the 11 individual acts of violence examined, including throwing something, pushing, grabbing or shoving, slapping, kicking, biting or hitting, and hitting or trying to hit with something. Black and Hispanic couples reported higher rates than interethnic and whites couples for 4 of the remaining 6 acts, i.e., beat up, choked, forced to have sex, and threatened with a knife or gun. Despite black and Hispanic couples’ higher rates for these severe acts of partner violence, interethnic couples were more likely to report severe intimate partner violence based on their higher rates of kicking, biting or hitting, and hitting or trying to hit with something. Rates of moderate intimate partner violence were only somewhat higher in interethnic couples relative to other couples. Among couples that report intimate partner violence, most occurrences of intimate partner violence for interethnic couples were mutual, involving bidirectional male and female perpetrated violence. Black couples reporting intimate partner violence also had higher rates of mutual violence, while white and Hispanic couples reported more unidirectional partner violence, i.e., male-to-female (MFPV) and female-to-male (FMPV) perpetrated violence only” (Chartier 1792).

Interracial dynamics in children performance

Children in interracial marriages have their own share of challenges. Some of them are physically different from their peers and find themselves in a category of their own. This has a great bearing on their social lives and extends to their performance in class. However, when the parents foresee this challenge and take positive steps to make their children come to terms with it, the children grow up with their mixed – race situation being strength rather than a drawback. Grapes talks of this challenge where parents give an account of their challenges in helping their children cope with race conflict “A white mother with two young children refers to them as black. She sees this term as a political term—it bears no relevance to the way things really are. A black father classified his two daughters as white, and this is on their birth certificates. Many parents mentioned that they have discussed racial issues with their children, stressing the importance of seeing people as individuals and not as blacks or whites. They wanted their children to know that there were differences, but that these differences did not matter when it came to what was inside a person. All these parents have had to deal with the issue of identifying their children’s race and apparently they have given a good deal of thought to it. Perhaps the dominant theme of this issue is that the parents do not have a label that adequately describes their children, not for the parents’ sake but for society in general, which seems to need to label children. They recognized that their children would have to “check off” a certain category, and as far as they were concerned, there was no adequate category to describe their children’s race. Seven out of ten parents felt that their children had adjusted well to their biracial identity in school and with friends. The parents were well aware of racial prejudice and what their children would have to endure” (Grapes 15).

Since interracial families face an unusual status in the society, they tend to embrace the need to openly talk about race with their children and help them to face their situation positively. This helps the children to cope with the mixed – race challenge which consequently removes the barrier to their performance in social life, academics and generally success in life.

 

References

Charles, N. et al (2008). Families in transition: social change, family formation and kin relationships. Bristol: Policy Press.

Chartier, K. G. & Caetano, C. (2012). Intimate partner violence and alcohol problems in interethnic and intra-ethnic couples. J Interpers Violence, 9, 1780 – 1801.

Grapes, B. J. (2000). Interracial relationships. San Diego, California: Greenhaven Press, Inc.

Kreider, R. M. (2000). Interracial marriage and marital instability. Los Angeles CA: Population Association of America.

Rosenblatt, P. C. et al (1995). Multiracial couples: black & white voices. United States: Sage Publications Inc.

Rosenfeld, M. J. (2005). A critique of exchange theory in mate selection. American journal of sociology. 110, 1284–1325.

Yancey, G. & Lewis, R. (2009). Interracial families: current concepts and controversies. New York: Routledge.

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Do we need a new science for sustainable development? What does sustainability science contribute?

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Introduction

In the past few centuries, human activities have caused extensive damage to the environment. However, it is only recently that the society has begun to comprehend what some actions may mean for the environment. In today’s economy driven world, natural resources are being exploited and depleted at worrying rates that cannot be sustained (Wilbanks, 1994).

The failure to understand the relationship between the environment, people, and other necessary factors in the ecosystem has led to a near environmental and social crisis (Bansal, 2005). This has inevitably led to the development of new disciplines, such as environmental science, sustainable development, renewable energy among others (Fergus & Rowney, 2005).

This paper will concentrate on the intellectual value and practical perspectives of sustainable development as a science.  The term sustainable development has received great importance in because it holds the key to human survival. The challenges relating to the issue, and the power that surrounds the terms requires a distinct discipline in order to formulate the necessary theories and practical procedures that are necessary for the kind of sustainable development envisioned. This paper will therefore argue the case for the establishment of a new science to drive sustainable development, and also identify what a sustainable development science would contribute (Bell & Morse, 2007).

Understanding Sustainable development

The idea of sustainable development was born out of concerns by developed countries regarding economic and demographic challenges. This was pushed by a sense of crisis regarding the implications of a spiraling growth in population (Robinson, 2004).

This later led experts into digging deeper to understand the broader challenges that are posed by development. The United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP) was established following the Stockholm conference and one of its key mandates was to promote the concept of “ecodevelopment” (Wilbanks, 1994).   In 1983, the U.N. established the world commission on Environment development. The commission released a report in 1987 that emphasized on the importance of sustainable development (Bell & Morse, 2007). The report mainly dwelt on the need to meet the basic needs of humans while recognizing the limits posed by the environment.

By early 1990s, the move towards government action, policy and research analysis in regard to climate issues was gathering momentum, and this culminated in the United Nation’s Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 (Bell & Morse, 2007). On behalf of all the 170 countries in attendance, the UNCED issued a declaration on the Environment and Development which detailed a comprehensive blueprint on “Global partnership for Sustainable Development” (Fergus & Rowney, 2005). Political and intellectual interests have played a major role in the development of key concepts in sustainable development (Rosehead & Mingers, 2001).

As defined in the 1987 world environmental commission report, sustainable development refers to the kind of development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” (Fergus & Rowney, 2005). This definition has generally captured the forward-looking nature of sustainable development but has tended to overlook many important factors that are central to sustainable development.

Currently, sustainable development is viewed upon as “economic growth that is sustainable in ecological terms and satisfies the essential needs of the lower class” (Matzdorf & Ramage, 2000).

However, to be clearer, the concept revolves around the ability to meet basic needs of the rapidly expanding world population without stretching the environment to its limits (Fergus & Rowney, 2005).  It is imperative to note that in order to achieve a sustainable economic development, particularly when this is looked at in terms of reducing the gap between the rich and the poor, it means that the physical environment is going to experience heavier impacts (Wilbanks, 1994).

Some areas of the world will soon experience economic and social problems that relate to the depletion of natural resources and an increase in pollution. And if things are not checked, then global economic development may grind to halt due to irreparable environmental price (Forsth, 2003).

Thus the idea of sustainable development is particularly important in the sense that linking long-term and equitable economic progress that has a balanced relationship with the environment is not an easy thing. This partly argues the case for the establishment of a distinctive science to deal with issues of sustainable development. Other issues of course relate to the determination of the complexity associated with different human/environmental factors, and their significance in sustainable development perspectives.

Sustainable development must be looked at as the development of the human activities and structures that can continue into the future without posing dangers to people and the environment (Andrew, Fergus, Julie, & Rowney, 2005).

The need for a new science to drive sustainable development

There are a number of things happening on sustainability science front currently with emphasis on the creation of a sustainability science and technology (Houghton & Counsell, 2004).  However, not much has been achieved on the need to create the desired prominence and acceptance. The sustainability website (sustainabilityscience.org) has been on the forefront in carrying the initiative (LeVeness & Primeaux, 2004). Initial steps have been developed to set the ground for the development of educational and organizational capacity for science, research training amongst different nations (Taket & White, 2000). There is also a move towards experimentation and innovation to create public and private partnerships. But all this is being undertaken with economic development “comfort zones”, though it is quite clear that sustainability must come at a good amount of cost to economic development.

There is so much that is being done wrongly currently, in the name of promoting sustainable development. In order to understand why there is need for the development of a sustainable development science, it is imperative that the challenges experienced in the current framework are reviewed (Dennis & Peek-Gottschlich, 2001). As currently understood, sustainable development covers a wide range of related and interacting issues that are often highly contentious in meaning (Fergus & Rowney, 2005). Sustainable development must not be looked at within the prevailing rationale where projects are often valued in regard to their tangible outputs.  Learning and participation within projects can also be a valuable output as far as various concepts of sustainability are considered (Fergus & Rowney, 2005).

According to Bell & Morse (2007), sustainable development literature must include the following:

Description of sustainability as an “end point”; This is important if sustainability has to be looked upon as an improvement of some sort or at least creating the mechanisms required to achieve improvement. For instance, reducing the number of vehicles on the road with the objective of reducing pollution to some targeted level (Bell & Morse, 2007).

Sustainability as a learning process; for this, sustainability should not be considered to be an endpoint in itself but rather an evolution of change (Bell & Morse, 2007).  Thus tangible results should not be expected in the short term but be present in the longer term.

These perspectives are important if sustainability has to improve present lives without putting future generations at risk.

Ten Items

The UN has proposed ten items for consideration in the new sustainability science approach. They were formulated to help sustain growth and environmental awareness.

Having globalization work for sustainable development – As things stand now, globalization does not work equally for all countries. Trust-based sustainable development can only work if fairness is adopted at globalization level. Areas that should be tackled include elimination subsidies that favor certain regions and improve the market access by products manufactured in developing countries (LeVeness & Primeaux, 2004).

Poverty eradication and improvement of livelihoods – Severe ecological areas are often dominated by people living in extreme poverty conditions. Sustainable development can only be achieved when efforts are made to improve living conditions of such people. This can be achieved through sustainable livelihoods, education, agricultural improvement, efforts to minimize waste, and encouraging renewable energy use (Clark, 1995).

Changing patterns of production and consumption – There is need to increase energy efficiency, and enhancing corporate responsibility through measures such as provision of incentives for cleaner energy production (Leveness & Primeaux, 2004).

Health improvement – The health of much of the world population can be improved by provision of access to fresh water and reduction of pollutants such lead in petroleum products.

Access to energythe worlds deprived economies need to gain access to energy and more so by making more use of renewable and energy efficient technologies. Established economies must also adopt measures to ensure change from unsustainable energy consumption patterns (Oldfield & Shaw, 2002).

Ecosystem and biodiversity management The problem of overfishing, marine pollution, and deforestation must be stopped. Here are other interesting presentation topics

Fresh water supply The supply of fresh water must be improved an equitable distribution of water resources attained.

Provision of financial resources There should be increased assistance in terms of official and private investment in sustainable practices and sharing of technologies that environmentally friendly.

Encourage sustainable developments in Africa There is a need for development of institutions that can address problems such as hunger, health, resource management, and environmental protection.

Strengthen international governance – There should be emphasis on the development of a sustained global approach rather than the present framework where different countries work on their own.

Although the current methods have not entirely solved global environmental issues, it is imperative to note that establishing another science might not solve every remaining challenge. The current sustainability development goals are poised on triggering a balance between the two, and the challenge has not been objective formulation rather the implementation of the same.

However, as suggested by various scholars, a new science for sustainability development might be necessary to counter new challenges that emerge every day. To formulate a new science, a rigorous process is followed, and step by step analysis of the processes involved is highlighted below.

Steps in the establishment of a new sustainability science

  1. Identifying the issues

The concept of sustainable development has led to a number of problems in developing good theory because of the various ambiguities that have surrounded the concept since its inception. It is common knowledge that many people in developed countries like the idea of sustainable growth but are only concerned with the environmental conservation that has a zero impact on economic development (Radermacher, 1999).  On the other hand, people in developing countries tend to look at economic development that can have little impact on the environment. Therefore, there are varying objectives as far as sustainable development is concerned though the general concerns are the same.  Whereas there seems to be good progress on the development of technical capabilities, there is still so much work to be done for political and organizational acceptance.

There are so many inconsistencies in terms of national practice, in the context of different political and economic systems. The varying views have led to a number of inconsistencies in the arguments on sustainable development. In a rather worrying trend, the arguments have included to form part of the growing literature on sustainable development (Bansal, 2005).

Conservation Vs Growth – There is no consensus on how conservation and development should be carried out both in industrialized countries and developing economies. In the past, biodiversity has a formed a critical part of this debate, however, there is need to consider other key things such as preserving the landscape.

Freedom Vs Control – It is currently not clear whether sustainable development can be advanced in a free atmosphere or it will always be under the control of political players and financiers.  The need to trust populists, and market oriented decision makers is key if the people involved in the drive for global sustainability are to do their jobs right. This is particularly important because is need for difficult choices if sustainability has to be advanced in the interest of future generations (Robinson, 2004).

Centralization Vs decentralization – It is not clear whether decision making action should be left within a particular country’s borders, localities or groups of countries.

Reform versus revolution – After evaluating the realities posed by climate change, resource depletion and pollution, is it necessary to adopt incremental changes in policies, preferences, and institutions or does sustainable development call for a complete overhaul of how things are done (Rosehead & Mingers, 2001)?

What emerges here is that sustainability cannot be advanced as an environmental or political science per se. The concept is ultimately a political question as there is a need for control, resource allocation, dispute resolution, and agenda setting (Bell & Morse, 2007). Therefore, sustainable development literature cannot be drawn from ecology, economics and environmental science alone, but more so from fields such as social political structures. There is a lot that needs to be done in order for sustainable development to stop being a series of temporary fixes and add-ons that are currently witnessed.

It is not however to say that not much has been achieved currently, the inclusion of sustainable development within economic paradigm has led to the achievement of some positives such as development of alternative energy sources and establishment of measures to control pollution.

  1. An inclusive decision making process

The concept of sustainability science is worth; it however needs to gain legitimacy, authority, and credibility by the inclusion of relevant stakeholders into the implementation process (Zhao, Luo, Deng, & Yan, 2008). It is very clear that meaningful sustainable development can only be achieved if correct decisions are made at both national and international political levels. Therefore, there is need to bring environmental scientists on board so that populists decisions correctly linked to what actually needs to be done. If scientific analysis is used as a basis for political decisions in as far as sustainable development is concerned then a more positive and effective sustainability will be realized. It is only by telling things as they currently are (sustainability challenges and the particular measures that should be taken), will there be a more towards politicization that is based on trust rather threats.

Politics as a center of power is very crucial for integrated and inclusive changes to be undertaken in order to create the foundational ethic value that is required for proper sustainable development. Value must be measured in terms of social, economic, and environmental as opposed to the current domination of economic value (Lertzman & Vrednburg, 2005).

  1. Adoption of analytical Frameworks

As part of the approach to addressing issues related to sustainable development Problem Structuring Methods (PSMs) can go a long way in addressing such issues. PSMs are commonly applied in small scale organizational contexts but can function well in highly complex issues such as those relating environment, sustainability, conflict and democracy (Fowler & Hope, 2007).

While the basic aspects of sustainability are science, most other aspects are prone to differential interpretation. For instance, while reducing cars on roads can be a good move towards reducing pollution, a request of such a measure cannot appeal to many car owners.

There is a lot of danger of what sustainable development wants to attain and the priorities of those who will benefit from them (Bell & Morse, 2007). This problem is even worse on the larger scale where some countries would consider sustainable development to be just another neocolonial push by the western world.

PMSs can be effective tools in managing diversity, resolving conflicts, and promoting collaboration. An analytical framework is critical for a reflective deconstruction of sustainability to allow for learning to take place within projects. The following factors must therefore be included as part of sustainable development PMS.

Comparing and contrasting the varying visions of both sustainable and unsustainable development factors

How sustainable outcomes of any given project can be maintained

How project teams and individuals can learn and apply the knowledge beyond the project’s time frame

And how the lessons learned can be carried into the future.

Thus a PMS model for can be developed through reflection, connection (linking experiences to other related areas), modeling, and acting (Bell & Morse, 2007). If new theory can be developed to include PMSs in all critical areas of sustainable development then a lot can be achieved.

The contribution of sustainability science

As things stand now sustainability science is dominated by explanations anchored on social and political framings (Carvalan, Kjellstrom, & Smith, 1999). For instance, the Kyoto protocol has put a requirement on carbon emitters to invest in reforestation as a way of justifying continued emission. The global perspectives of removal of carbon, which are often based on environmental science, are not consistent with local needs for land tenure security and development (Williams & Millington, 2004). Therefore, there is a big problem with the monitoring process that is trusted on the observation and measurement by local mechanisms (Simola, 2007).

The establishment of a sustainable development science will definitely address the gap between what environmental sciences thinks should be done and what politics says should be done. The forecast of doom that is dominates sustainability expert talks be able to attract the political response it deserves.

It is only through such initiatives will it be possible to achieve concrete partnerships between governments, citizen groups, and businesses.

It is only by changing the political perception towards what really needs to be done, will there be any meaningful trickledown effect in terms of policies, procedures, regulation, and compliance.

It is now clear that industrialized countries might be required to cut down on their living standards in order to level the playing field for underprivileged communities. Such a measure can only be achieved if sustainability development is deeply rooted in politics (Fergus & Rowney, 2005).

There is no doubt that science and research can contribute greatly to the development of sustainable science. Here is the specific ways through which science can impact on sustainable development:

Complex nature of issues – Most of the global challenges that put a lot of pressure on environmental sustainability can only be addressed through systematic approaches. Science is required to effectively strike a balance between population increase, prudent use of resources, and factors such as water supply (Bansal, 2005).

Placing climate questions in the larger context – Climate questions are often discussed in isolation and, therefore, fail to generate the desired importance. A sustainable science is very crucial in the development and improvement of literacy in regard to sustainable development.  If sustainability is adopted in the wider scientific literature, particularly in the areas such as healthcare and nutrition then people will readily accept various measures that are required to tackle the problem (Dennis & Peek-Gottschlich, 2001).

Development of the necessary energy systems – The development of efficient energy systems to drive sustainability depends a lot on science and technology. It is imperative that energy systems are evaluated on their ability to affect the environment while at the same time fulfilling energy requirements (Lertzman & Vrednburg, 2005).

Environmental Analysis – A sustainable development science plays a critical role in the development of tools that are required to analyze how different systems impact on the environment. It is important to understand how technical processes and products, and consumption patterns on impact on sustainability (Matzdorf & Ramage, 2000).

Material flow and risk assessment – A sustainable science plays a crucial role in understanding material flows (energy, raw materials, and cultivation patterns) and what they mean for the environment. Such systems can also be used to evaluate the desired practices that will have minimum impact on the environment.  Sustainability science is also crucial in the understanding of how various risks can be assessed. For instance, identification of ways that can be used to decontaminated polluted land.

Sustainable construction, transport and logistics – It is only by understanding the risk related to specific areas, will experts be in a position to adopt the required sustainable systems.  For instance, logistics and transport systems have played in leading role in pollution. Science is needed to identify the priority areas that should be tacked in the transport system to make sustainable development a reality.  The same goes for construction and urban development (Simola, 2007).

Conclusion

Indeed sustainable development has been a front burner issue for quite some time, and many action steps have already been put in place to map out what needs to be done. However, there is a big disconnect between what is actually being done and what can be done to effectively meet targets. The whole issue boils down to politics and economic interests. Therefore, there is need for the development of theory and analytical frameworks that can provide a way forward and make sure that needs of future generations are well taken care off. A new science for sustainability science is paramount in order to counter the current imbalances.   

References

Andrew, H., Fergus, T., Julie, I., & Rowney, A. (2005). Sustainable Development:

Epistemological Frameworks & an Ethic of Choice. Journal of Business Ethics ,

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T.C. Boyle’s Stories

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T.C Boyle is one of the greatest short story writers of his time. He has written numerous stories that tackle different topics and phases of life, in what is perhaps his dream life told through various characters within his masterpieces. Boyles is not only enthusiastic but his is also extremely creative. This can explain why his work has won so many awards. This also explains why so many have taken the trouble to read through the entire 900 pages of his latest short stories.

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One aspect that Boyle has effectively preserved is his ability to maintain a momentum. Although every story is different, he manages to maintain the attention of the readers by ensuring smooth transitions between stories. Thus, the readers are encouraged to read all the stories progressively to ensure they do not miss an episode thereabout. However, this does not mean that the stories are not independent but it is a strength used by Boyle to encourage his audience to read all the stories.

His latest collection has 61 short stories, which comprises 14 new ones and another 47 published over a period of three decades. The short stories showcase the ability of an enthusiastic individual who is able to entertain and educate his audience using a mastery that he has perfected over the years. Throughout his writing, he consistently shows themes such as the line between humanity and animals, man’s isolation and fragility, excessive violence, the obsessive love of a man for a woman and several others.

His short stories are characterized by drowning and dying youth, alcoholism and its effects on individuals and agonies of the old age, as demonstrated by suffering old people.

Despite the numerous similarities between his short stories, there are comparable features in some of the pieces found in this publication. For instance, Tooth and Claw, Jubilation, The Swift Passage of Animals, Dogology and Chicxulub have various similar characteristics that will be covered in this essay. In these short stories Boyle uses fictitious effects to bridge his arguments. For instance a dragonfly is used to justify a separation between a man and wife for a period of three years during which the man does not communicate to his wife, and as a consequence of the same, the wife dies.

Boyle pursues an argument that light separates men from animals; “Let me tell you, everything in that room and the room beyond it shone as if we were seeing it for the first time, both of us, and when the sun broke free and poured through those spotless windows to pool on the shining floor, the glare was almost too much for us.” He uses timeless stillness to protect his protagonists from any harm.

Despite his insightfulness, Boyle exhibits non-engagement in several instances within the short stories that can be explained by his lack of real world experience, as was highlighted by the introduction where he admits to relying more on information found in books instead of following real world experiences. This means that even though his technique is unmatched, most of his narrations are imaginary. However, his ability to enhance his prose is demonstrated by how effectively he uses previous experiences within his short stories. For instance, in The Swift Passage of Animals, Boyle takes his audience on a long tour that happens during a weekend. This romantic tour is undertaken by two individuals that love nature; Zach and Ontario, who is divorced. The sole intention of Zach was to impress Ontario and try to win her over. Here Boyle insists that Zach took advantage of nature to achieve his motives, even though nature cannot be manipulated by humans.

In The Kind Assassin Boyle emphasizes two main themes that run throughout his narrations; the determination to live on and the temptation to give up, the urge to sleep and the temptation to continue sleeping. The indecisiveness does not help, but instead worsens the situation. The characters seem to continue living even after they die from drinking. The characters seem to be only held up and would reincarnate and may ultimately live again.

In Dogology Boyle, pursues two parallel stories, one on East Indian wolf-children and a wife running with a pack of dogs. Both of the stories seem to agree on the disadvantages of human socialization processes, as the woman loses her humanness as a result of over interacting with dogs.

Based on the meteor even that is attributed erasing of dinosaurs from the face of the earth, Chicxulub, tells of a story of Ted and Maureen Biehn’s daughter that was hit by a speeding car as she was walking along the road. This changes the live of Biehn forever; just live the meteor changed the course of life after it struck.

The short story Tooth and Claw, introduces four different characters that disguises themselves as different characters. The title Tooth and Claw befits the story because the characters intentionally cause harm to the other. A good example is displayed by James Turner Jr. who moved to California “So that I could inject a little excitement into my life and mingle with all the college students in the bars…” He then lives in an apartment rented for his behave by his aunt.

Although the six short stories pursue different themes, they have striking similarities. To start with, they show suffering and distress that is perpetuated by individuals. In some cases, ambitious persons may decide to walk different paths but end up in different destinations as was evidenced in Dogology.

However, both Tooth and Claw, and Chicxulub, suffering is by other individuals, who may accidentally or maliciously cause harm.

Most of his pieces are wistfully weaved, where some individuals enjoy live at the expense of others. But in other stories, untold suffering is brought to the protagonist though the death or suffering of others.